Estrogen and progesterone physiology

The synthesis of estradiol is mainly synthesized in particles, and progesterone is mainly produced by progesterone.

Physiological effects of estrogen

Promoting the development of female reproductive organs and maintaining the second characteristics of females also have an effect on metabolism.

  1. Promoting and maintaining second sexuality

Maintaining the normal function of the sexual organs promotes the metabolism of the endometrium and muscle layer, thickening the lining, hyperplasia of the vaginal epithelial, and the enclonal cells of the upper layer,

Increaseuterine activity and increase the sensitivity of the smooth muscle to oxytocin.

  1. Small doses of estrogen, which promote the release of gonad hormones, promote breast catheters and glandular growth and development;

High doses of estrogen have the effect of inhibiting gonadotropins, inhibiting prolactin, inhibiting ovulation, and fighting androgens.

  1. Metabolism promotes sodium retention, bone calcium deposition, weak assimilation metabolism, improved serum TG and HDL, and reduced LDL levels, reduced sugar tolerance, and more.
  2. Increased blood coagulation Increases the likelihood of thrombosis when using higher levels of estrogen pill, and low levels of estrogen pills do not occur.

Estrogen use

  1. Insufficient hormone secretion in women’s supplements

Ovarian dysplindy or dysfunctional, artificial menstrual cycle.

Functional uterine bleeding (estrogen secretion)

  1. Menopause syndrome cheek red fever, sweating, nausea, insomnia, obesity and emotional distress.

The moderate amount of estrogen supplementation can be fed back to inhibit GnRH,FSH and LH secretion and reduce symptoms.

  1. Contraception Large doses of estrogen inhibit FSH secretion.
  2. Breast cancer High doses of estrogen inhibit gonadotropin secretion and reduce endogenous estrogen for use in patients with advanced breast cancer after menopause for more than 5 years.
  3. Prostate cancer High doses of estrogen inhibit the secretion of gonadotropins, antagonistic and anti-androgen sethenos.
  4. Prevention of cardiovascular disease through the effects of lipoprotein metabolism and direct effects on blood vessels. The use of estrogen cardiovascular disease after menopause can be reduced by 35percent to50percent. There are also reports that the incidence of blood clots can be increased.
  5. Other

Old-age osteoporosis, acne (acne): increases bone calcium deposits

Can be used with androgens

White blood cell degrades (radiation) elevated white blood cells

Delaying Alzheimer’s disease has a learning and memory enhancement effect on the elderly




Physiological effects of progesterone

Mainly used for endometrial and uterine smooth muscle, to adapt to the fertilized egg bed and pregnancy, progesterone can inhibit the development of new particles.

  1. The reproductive system is mainly for pregnancy assistance, birth safety.

Later in the menstrual cycle, on the basis of estrogen to make endometriosis, progesterone further enables the growth and branching of endometrial glands, the lining of the lining is filled and thickened, from the proliferation period to the secretion period, ready for the fertilized egg bed and embryo development, which is conducive to the continued development of post-bed blastocyst.

Menstrual, can make the endometrium all fall off, to avoid the bleeding caused by shedding incomplete.

During pregnancy, it can reduce the sensitivity of the uterine muscle to the post-pituitary hysterin, inhibit uterine activity, and make the fetus grow safely.

  1. Breast promotes the growth of glandular bubbles and prepares for breastfeeding.
  2. Neuroendocrine

Physiological amounts reduce the frequency of pulse activity of GnRH secretion neurons, increasing lH per release.

High doses reduce LH secretion and inhibit ovulation.

  1. The effect of heating affects the hypothalamus body temperature regulation center, the menstrual cycle in the middle of ovulation when the body temperature is about higher than usual, until the advent of menstruation, this effect is closely related to progesterone. 0.56℃
  2. The effect on metabolism is a liver drug enzyme inducer that can promote drug metabolism, fight aldosterone, promote sodium chlorine excretion, promote protein decomposition metabolism, and increase the excretion of urea nitrogen.
  3. Breathing Increases the amount of ventilation in minutes and reduces the CO2 pressure of the alveoli.


Mainly used for contraception, postmenopausal alternative treatment.

  1. Presortic and habitual abortion, birth.
  2. Functional uterine hemorrhage Treatment due to lack of progesterone, unruled peeling due to undeveloped endometriosis, or uterine bleeding caused by persistent stimulation of the endometrium due to estrogen.
  3. Amenive diagnosis and treatment Progesterone is used to diagnose estrogen secretion and understand the response of the endometrium to hormones. After 5to7 days of applying progesterone to a menaced women, evacuation bleeding occurs if the endometrium reacts to endogenous estrogen. The combination of estrogen and progesterone is also used to diagnose and treat amenorrhea.
  4. Primary pain is caused by progesterone causing the endometrium to synthesize PGF2alpha, which stimulates spasmal contractions in the uterine muscle. 19- Demethyl testosterone progesterone inhibits progesterone secretion in the progesterone phase, thereby reducing menstruation.
  5. A large dose of endometriosis can cause endometriosis to atrophy to treat endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  6. Benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer Feedback inhibits the secretion of gonadotropins in the pituitary front, thereby reducing testosterone secretion


Such drugs are prohibited by sports competitions. In conjunction with intensive training, short-term use of testosterone (600mgperweek,6 times the amount of conventional treatment) increases fat-free muscle weight and volume.

Since the actual application is often more than 20 times higher than the amount of treatment, a series of adverse reactions occur: male testicular atrophy, infertility, male female breast; There are also aggressive behavior and mental changes. Both sexes increase the risk of coronary heart disease and may cause sudden death.


The role of prolactin (prolactin) in female reproductive function: participation in the regulation of multiple physiological functions such as lactation, reproduction and growth. During pregnancy and lactation, prolactin improves the breast’s response to estrogen and stimulation.

(iii) The effect of oxytocin on female reproductive function: in female animals, oxytocin can increase the contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus during the onbirth, and participate in lactation lactation of breast reflexes.


Reproductive cycle

(1) follicle period, (2) ovulation period, (3) yellow body period.

FSH(also known as sperm production),  LH(also known as interstitial cytokine)


The role of the ovaries in the egg

Original follicles , primary follicles , secondary follicles , mature follicles , ovulation , egg cells, transparent bands, etc.

C-‘C’- ‘C’

:: Ovarian cycle —- the growth and development of follicles, ovulation and flatrite formation

Periodic changes once a month.

:: Menstrual —- Bleeding from periodic peeling of the endometrium under the action of ovarian steroid hormones.


Endocrine function of the ovaries



Before ovulation: female H secreted by follicles;

After ovulation: pregnant H and female H. secreted by the yellow body


  1. Physiological effects of female H

(1) Promote the development of female reproductive organs and maintain them in a normal state:

(1) Follithias: promote development, induce the appearance of LH peak, promote ovulation;

(2) fallopian tubes: promote epithelial hyperplasia, enhance secretion and movement;

(3) uterus: promote development, endometriosis, cervical secretion;

(4) Vagina: epithelial hyperplasia, cell analysitity, secretion acidification.

(2) promote breast development and the appearance of female para-characteristic seilife and maintain normal;

(3) metabolism: (1) promote protein synthesis, promote growth and development;

(2) accelerate bone growth (promote bone, suppress bone);

(3) Anti-arterial sclerosis: blood cholesterol, etc.;

(4) (at high concentrations) leads to water, sodium retention.

  1. For underage women, estrogen promotes the development of female sexual characteristics and the final maturation of sexual organs.
  2. For adult women, female sexuality continues to be maintained. Under the synergy of progesterone, the endometrium changes periodically, forming a menstrual cycle, and enhancing the sensitivity of the uterine smooth muscle to hysterin. It can also make vaginal epithelial hyperplasia, shallow surface cell anthorization.
  3. Larger doses of estrogen inhibit ovulation. It can also inhibit milk secretion. In addition, there is the role of fighting androgens.
  4. Affects water salt metabolism. Increases the calcium salt deposit of the bone and accelerates the closure of the bone. It has a catalytic effect on adolescent growth and development. It reduces sugar tolerance, affects blood lipids, lowers LDL and cholesterol, and increases HDL.

Effect seiprogesterone

– Adapt to pregnancy and stay in bed and maintain the pregnancy.

The role of progesterone is basically based on the action of estrogen

(1) The uterus (Angong bao:

(1) The endometrium is further thickened and secreted;

(2) inhibit the contraction of the uterus;

(3) Inhibits the mother’s rejection of the fetus.

(2) Breast: promotes the development of breast glandular bubbles.

(3) Heat production: acting on the hypothalamus body temperature regulation center.

  1. Promotes endometriosis
  2. Inhibits uterine contraction
  3. Promotes the development of mammary glandular bubbles
  4. Suppressive ovulation
  5. Diuretic
  6. Raise body temperature


The biological effect of estradiol is the strongest, the biological effect of estanoster is second, and estradiol is the weakest.

The estrogen produced by the ovaries enters the blood stream in combination with the sex hormones combined with globulin (SHBG) and albumin, and the hormones that bind to the protein have no physiological function.    Only 1% are non-binding, and the free-state estrogen has physiological function.

The current estrogen assays are the total amount of estradiol, expressed in pg/mL or pmol/L. Free estradiol is not clinically measured.

Estradiol unit conversion 1pg / ml = 3.67pmol / L 1 pmol/L=0.272pg/ml

(Molecular weight 272)

Estrogen must bind to estrogen receptors within the cell in order to have physiological function. There are two estrogen receptors in the cell.     Alpha receptors and beta receptors.


Different estrogens and receptors have different binding abilities, and therefore biological activity varies. For example, estradiol has a binding rate of 100% to alpha and beta receptors. Hexalone was 60% and 37%, and esttriol was 14% and 21%, respectively. The higher the binding rate, the stronger the biological effect.   Different estrogens and receptors have different binding abilities, and therefore biological activity varies. For example, estradiol has a binding rate of 100% to alpha and beta receptors. Hexalone was 60% and 37%, and esttriol was 14% and 21%, respectively. The higher the binding rate, the stronger the biological effect.

Estrogen not only acts on the reproductive system, but also on tissues throughout the body.


The amount and proportion of alpha and beta receptors in cells in different tissues are different, so estrogen softens different functions in different tissues. It has different effects on the reproductive system, the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the digestive system and bones.


The ovaries produce 100-300 mg of estradiol per day. The ketone is 110-260 sg. At peak times is estthane up to 450-950?g.    The ketone is 350-650 sg.


The amount of estrogen produced by the ovaries at different times during the menstrual cycle varies and its concentration changes as it enters the bloodstream.

In the first week of the menstrual cycle, E2 is 25-75pg/mL, peak in week 2 is 200-600pg/mL,then the level drops and in the fourth week there is an increase of 100-300pg/mL.

The follicular phase is 25-75 pg / mL, the ovulation phase is 200-600 pg / mL, and the luteal phase is 100-300 pg / mL.

Early 1000-5000pg/L, mid-pregnancy 5-15 pg/L; late pregnancy 100-400 pg/L; menopause 5-25 pg/L.


Progesterone is mainly produced by the yellow body of the ovaries

The ovaries produce progesterone.

The ovaries also produce 17 oxyprogesterone during the production of steroid hormones.

Progesterone produced daily is 2-30 mg


Progesterone levels are very low before ovulation, gradually increase after ovulation, and progesterone levels are highest in the middle of the yellow ingress. Should be more than 15 ng/ml. The premenstrual returns to the lowest level.

Progesterone levels in the blood

1ng/ml before ovulation

Yellow age 5-20ng/ml

Early pregnancy 20-30ng/ml

Mid-pregnancy 50-100ng/ml

Late pregnancy 100-400ng/ml


Progesterone unit conversion





Estrogen-derived drugs

Mainly used for contraception, is the estrogen component of most compound contraceptives.

Because it is not a physiological hormone. It is generally not used for HRT,nor for pregnancy-assisting techniques.


Natural estrogen, permimetis is a traditional oral estrogen, is a combination of a variety of estrogens, the main component is estrogen. Because it is not exactly a physiological hormone. Mostly used for cycle therapy, HRT, but not for pregnancy-assisting techniques.


Progesterone preparations

Progesterone is a steroid hormone produced by the ovaries that is quickly metabolized by the liver after oral administration and cannot be directly administered as an oral drug and can only be injected.

17 Oxyproges-derived drugs

methoxyprogesterone, methprogesterone

Methyl oxyprogeatone: 2 mgpertablet. Multi-use is a supplement to progesterone in hormone replacement therapy. It is also used to treat functional performance bleeding. Less effect on lipid metabolism. Methyloxyprogesterone acetate is the most commonly used oral progesterone, the daily dose is generally 4-10 mg.


Methyloxyprogesterone acetate is further derived from cyclopiaprogesterone

Progesterone has a strong progesterone effect.    Cyclophyl progesterone also has a strong anti-androgen effect.


Progesterone derived from testosterone

Some progesterone is derived from testosterone, the chemical structure is not progesterone, but has progesterone-like physiological functions.

acetone is a testosterone-derived drug.

Acetone has a very slight androgen-like effect, which has some adverse effects on lipid metabolism. Therefore, the further synthesis of the zotynoketone.

With a drug twice as potent as acetylenone. Progesterone is currently commonly used in the pill. Androgens have a mild effect on lipid metabolism and less.

Progesterone for injection


Oral contraceptives

compound acetylene ketone tablets

(No. 1 oral contraceptive pill) 0.6mg of acetone and 0.03mg of estanol;


Normal menstrual uterine bleeding is the lowest level of estrogen and progesterone at the same time.

Non-ovulation type due to the growth of the endometrium is not limited by progesterone, the lining of the membrane overthickening, the glands increase, interstitial reduction. Due to lack of interstitial support, the tissue is fragile, leading to irregular uterine bleeding. Because the endometrium is not full and simultaneous bleeding, one part of the compound after another part of the haemorrhage, resulting in long-term bleeding.


Due to the relaxation of the helical artery in the normal menstrual cycle, spasms and embolism formation, the amount of bleeding may be very large and can only stop the bleeding by more.


The shedding of the normal menstrual endometrium stimulates regeneration, the glands begin to grow from the base of the base, and the epithelial skin of the lining regenerates from the corners and the fjords.

Scraping the palace exposes the base layer, promotes the regeneration of the inner membrane, and stops the bleeding.


Drug Name Methyl progesterone
English name Megestrol
“Other name” Megsch, Mecoji, Ilicure. MEGACE.
Medical Insurance B
Usage usage Oral: breast cancer, 160mg/day, endometrial cancer, 40 to 320mg/day, all 1 or sub-service.
The rules Tablets (acetate): 160mgx30 tablets/box, (Megsch). Dispersed film: 160mgx30 tablets/box, (Iliji), .
Functional Master For breast and endometrial cancer.
“Deputy use” Weight gain, nausea, vomiting, edema, uterine haemorrhage. Rare thrombosis, dyspnea, heart failure, hypertension, redness, mood changes, tumor recurrence, high blood sugar, rash, etc.
Notes Pregnant and lactating women, liver and kidney insufficiency, thrombosis, thrombosis, thrombosis.


Alias:  Women Ning;  Dehydromelone,  acetate acetyl ketones (foreign name)Megestrol Acetate
(Pharmacological Action) is a 17-oxyprogesterone derivative, for the efficient synthesis of progesterone, the effect of the progesterone 75 times.  As progesterone treatment functional bleeding, endometriosis, amenorrhea and so on. Combined with celenol as short-acting contraceptive No. 2, large doses can be used as a family visit inghout contraceptive.
1. Mainly used as a short-acting oral contraceptive pill, can also be used as a long-acting contraceptive.  2. It is used to treat pain, amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Dosage Usage
1. Used as a short-acting oral contraceptive pill: from the 5th day of the menstrual cycle, 1 pillmon, membrane or paper tablets taken daily, with 1 cycle for 22 days,  2to4 days after  discontinuation;  Continue taking the drug for 1 month.  2. Used as a family visit contraceptive pill: at noon on  the day of visiting a family 1 ketone visit ingress contraceptive 1,  the same night to take 1 tablet, after the daily evening to take 1 tablet, until the end of the visit, the next day to take 1 tablet.  3. Treatment of functional uterine bleeding: oral meldonadotablets, membranes or paper tablets, 1 2 mgevery 8 hours (in severe cases, 1 time every 3 hours, after significant reduction in bleeding 1 for 8 hours1   then reduce  the dose 1 time every 3 days until the maintenance amount is 4 mg  per day, continuous 20 days, after the bleeding stops, daily add -0 .  05mg or hexaenool  1mgfor 20 days.  4. Amenive: oral 1  ketone tablets and acetylene 0   .  05mgfor 20 days, 3 months in service.   5. Pain and endometriosis: 1 dose of  medforma ketone daily daily from 5to7 days of menstruation for a total of 20 days.  6. Endometriosis: metprogesterone tablets, 1 tablet at a time: 2 times a day for 7 days, then 3 times a day, 1 tablet each time, for a total of 7 days; 2 times, 2 tablets, for 7 days. Last 20mgdailyfor a total of 6 weeks.  7. Endometrial adenocarcinoma: Oral 4 mgdaily, gradually increased to 30 mgper day for a totalof 6 weeks, or 2 times daily, for atotalof 20 days.
A small number of dizziness, nausea, vomiting and other adverse reactions, occasionally irregular bleeding. Liver, kidney disease, breast lumps patients are not to use. Patients with uterine fibroids and hypertension are treated with caution.
Specifications:  Tablets (Women’s tablets): 1mg per tablet ;4mg. Membrane agent (vulan membrane): 1 mg per tablet;


For centrally precocious girls, GnRHa is given in conjunction with 8 mg of meldonacity. Take every night.

For younger girls, meldone ketones can be given first.

Observe the control of growth and development.













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