Speaking of rabies, I believe we will not be strangers.
As the world’s highest case fatality rate of infectious diseases, many people are “talk crazy”, avoid.
Is rabies really that scary?Is it really as scary as the media put it?Today, Dr. X and his friends are learning about rabies and saving lives.
What is rabies?
Dr. X asked his friend, “do you know what rabies is?”
She was very dismissive of the answer: “is not to be bitten by a mad dog.”
And then there’s no then.
Before we really knew about rabies, Dr.X was the answer.However, after consulting the relevant information, I found that:
Rabies, also known as hydrophobia, is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by rabies virus.
As early as in ancient times, there are medical records: the day will die, this damage to the serious, the world is light, where the rabid dog bite, manic, spirit is different.
In a few words, the danger of rabies is revealed.Until now, rabies is still a threat to people’s health.
1. Current situation of rabies
The world health organization (WHO) reports that about 59,000 people die from rabies every year.China has one of the highest rates of rabies in the world, second only to India.
Source: bureau of disease control and prevention, China economic research institute
However, in recent years, with the introduction of a series of anti-rabies measures in China, the effect is remarkable.Since 2008, rabies has been effectively controlled, and the morbidity and mortality have been decreasing year by year.As can be seen from the table, from 2012 to 2019, in only 7 years, both morbidity and mortality have decreased by more than 1,000 people.
Although the results of prevention of rabies are encouraging, we must pay attention to it.Because once rabies comes on, 100% will die.The scariest part is that during the incubation period, there are no obvious symptoms of rabies.
2. What are the symptoms of rabies?
The clinical manifestations of rabies are mainly divided into four stages: incubation period, prodromal period, excitatory period and paralytic period.
Incubation period: generally 1~3 months, as short as two weeks or longer than a year.
Prodrome: it usually begins with discomfort, fatigue, and fever, and most patients experience pain or itching at the site of the bite.In addition, still can appear the symptom such as unwarranted fear, neurosis, time is 2~4 days normally.
Excitement period: during this period, manic patient behavior and mood are abnormal.One of the most obvious manifestations is the fear of water.In particular, drinking water, seeing water, hearing the sound of water, or just talking about water can cause severe pharyngeal spasms.In addition, they may be afraid of light and wind, have difficulty breathing and urinating, secrete too much saliva, and even have rare symptoms such as hyperactivity.The time is usually 1-3 days.
Paralytic period: pass the state of hyperactive, patient spasm stops gradually calm, by this time can appear limb is soft paralytic more.Then weak breathing, will gradually into a coma, and eventually respiratory arrest.The duration is usually 6 to 18 hours.
From the incubation period to the period of paralysis, it is a process of the extinction of life, which will be accompanied by a lot of pain, which is unbearable.
Why can’t rabies be treated?
Looking at this, some people may wonder: why is it that medicine is so advanced, but there is no cure for rabies?
There are two main reasons:
1, rabies virus has a neurotropic.
Rabies is really tricky.When it comes to damaged skin, it usually does not spread through the blood, but instead completes small copies of the cells around the wound.
Subsequently, it invades the nerve center and spreads from the nerve center to the surrounding nervous system. Gradually, it invades various tissues and organs and damages the central system, resulting in dysphagia and respiratory spasm in patients.
2. Irreversible damage to the nervous system.
It is well known that the nervous system, especially the central nervous system, is irreversible after damage because nerve cells are non-renewable cells.
The guile of rabies virus also lies in here.”Shoot the man first shoot the horse, catch the thief and capture the king” tactics play very 6, grasp the key, a hit is in.After saying so hydrophobic, cannot cure, because central nervous system is irreversible injury eventually, can cause respiratory and circulatory failure to die.
Again, someone might ask, “why not get a vaccine or immunoglobulin at this time of year?”
Of course not.Because when the virus enters the central nervous system, the blood-brain barrier usually blocks rabies antibodies from entering the central nervous system, when it’s too late to heal.
What if you are bitten by an animal?
Rabies has a fatality rate of 100% and usually kills within a week of onset.Because of this, the prevention of rabies is particularly important.
What should you do if you are bitten by an animal?
China has a clear classification, according to the way of exposure and exposure, mainly divided into three levels.
Source: public information collation
Different types of exposure can be handled differently.
No disposal is required if the animal is merely touched or kept, or if the intact skin is licked.And if types exposed to levels Ⅱ or Ⅲ, it must be timely treatment.
The specific disposal method can be divided into three steps:
1. Rinse the wound
Wash each wound alternately with soapy water and running water under pressure.If soapy water is not available, a weakly alkaline cleaner will do.Rinse for 15 minutes and use normal saline to remove any remaining soapy water or detergent.
2. Disinfection treatment
Remove the bruise and clot from the wound and wipe the wound with 2-3% iodine or 75% alcohol.
Finished the first two steps of operation, if it is grade Ⅲ exposed or immune defects, head of facial injury Ⅱ level exposure shall use rabies immunoglobulin.If the vaccine is not injected in time, it can also be used within 7 days of the first vaccination, and the effect is almost zero after 7 days.
3. Get vaccinated
Vaccination is the most important step in the prevention of rabies.
Can the vaccination not be done?
The first vaccination had better be within 24 hours, the vaccine hit early, life less worry.
There are currently four and five shots of the vaccine.
4. Injection method: 0-7-21. The first injection was at day 0, two injections were needed in both arms, and the remaining two injections were needed on day 7 and 21.
5. Injection method: 0-3-7-14-28. It will take about one month to finish the inoculation.
Following points should be noted after vaccination:
Get plenty of rest and avoid strenuous exercise.Such as playing volleyball, football, etc.
Keep your diet light and avoid irritating foods.Such as strong tea, pepper, coffee and so on.
Strengthen observation and seek medical advice in time if serious adverse reactions occur.
Myths about rabies
Now, when it comes to rabies, many people have a phobia.On the one hand, it is because many domestic media have been exaggerating about rabies for a long time. On the other hand, it is because we know little about rabies.
How much of the demonized rabies is rumor?
1. Is rabies only transmitted from dogs?
No!Rabies can be transmitted by all warm-blooded animals, including cats, dogs, foxes, weasels and bats.
2, rabies vaccine harmful to human body?
Vaccinate rabies vaccine is to inject inactivated rabies virus into the human body, so that the body immune system produces antibodies to it.The vaccine is not toxic, though it may cause adverse reactions.What really hurts is the fake vaccine.
3, domestic health cats and dogs can also carry rabies virus?
Healthy cats and dogs do not carry the rabies virus. Infected cats and dogs usually die within 10 days.
4. The incubation period of rabies is several decades.
According to the world health organization (WHO), the incubation period of rabies is generally 2 weeks to 3 months.The vast majority of cases occur within three months, and almost none in more than a year.
5, rabies can be passed from person to person?
There have been no cases of human-to-human transmission, except for organ transplants.
6. Ten days of observation?
By spectrum.10-day observation method refers to observation while inoculation.If the animal does not die after 10 days, the injured animal is not at the onset of rabies and does not need to be vaccinated.
Write in the last
Rabies is incurable, but preventable.So let’s not make it so scary, let’s not demonize it.There is no need to worry as long as the precautions are taken.
Here, Dr. X also wants to appeal to the friends who are reading this article:
If you’re a pet lover, take care of them and keep them. Don’t throw them away and make them homeless.Be sure to give them rabies vaccine, which is to protect them, but also to protect everyone around.
If you accidentally get bitten, don’t think twice about it. Go to the hospital and get vaccinated.Do not have any lucky psychology, do not attempt to challenge the power of rabies virus.
After all, in the face of rabies