It can spread through a sneeze, it can spread backwards and forwards in the same elevator, it can spread through saliva on a shoe, it can spread through worn clothing…
Anthony fauci, an infectious disease expert, said in an interview that in his more than 50 years of research on infectious diseases, he had never seen avirus as bizarre as the novel coronavirus.
In fact, many scientists agree that the novel coronavirus is the most challenging virus humans have encountered in recent decades.
Wang Chen, academician of the Chinese academy of engineering and President of Peking union medical college, said in an interview with the media on April 3, “don’t think you have won the battle, everyone just lacks imagination for the new crown!”
Wang Chen academicians
Since the outbreak of covid-19, as the scientific community has gradually deepened its understanding of the virus, the transmission route of the virus has been increasingly recognized by the public.Novel coronavirus is a wily virus.
This article was reprinted from the WeChat public account “health times” (ID: jksb2013). The original text was first published on May 14, 2020, with the title “the transmission mode of the new coronavirus is beyond imagination!, does not represent the view of the think tank.
Most common: sneezing can spread
We can also see from the covid-19 diagnosis and treatment plan (trial seventh edition) released by the national health commission that droplet transmission is still the most widespread mode of transmission of novel coronavirus.1.
A case study by researchers from the guangzhou center for disease control and prevention and the yuexiu district center for disease control and prevention was recently published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, a journal published by the U.S. centers for disease control and prevention.The study introduced a case of covid-19 spread in a restaurant in guangzhou in January this year. In the case, 10 people from three families were diagnosed with covid-19, and the three families ate at the restaurant at the same time.The most likely cause of the outbreak was droplet transmission, the study said.
Jiang rongmeng, a member of the expert group of national health commission and chief physician of the second department of infection in Beijing ditan hospital, said at the press conference that droplets generally come out of the human body through coughing and sneezing, and will soon settle down after coming out.It can contaminate surfaces we come into contact with, like doorknobs, elevator buttons, and it can contaminate them.The study found that the virus could survive for hours on a smooth surface, or days if the temperature and humidity were right.
Most easy to ignore: touched the same doorknob will also spread
One of the two new cases in the city of dongyang was a close contact of the previously confirmed case, wu mucheng, in the covid-19 notification issued on February 8 in jinhua, zhejiang province, bringing the total number of people involved in the cluster to eight.The fifth case was infected after exposure to the same substance as other covid-19 patients.Disease control experts said it was likely that they had come into contact with the same object or pressed the same button in the elevator.
In an interview on January 28, feng luzhao, director of respiratory infection department, infectious diseases department, Chinese center for disease control and prevention, said contact transmission refers to direct or indirect contact of pathogens through vectors. Specifically, direct contact mainly refers to direct contact with the body secretions of patients.
In the novel coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment scheme (trial version 7) released by the national health commission, it is pointed out that the novel coronavirus transmission means “transmission by respiratory droplets is the main way of transmission, and can also be spread by contact.”
The most surprising: the same elevator can spread
On the evening of February 2, the guangdong provincial disease control and prevention bureau announced some real cases of infection: the neighbor who went up and down the stairs was infected because they took the same elevator.A man was recently diagnosed with novel coronavirus, but he did not have an apparent history of exposure or go to a farmers’ market, according to a disease control expert. He also wondered why he was infected.A subsequent epidemiological investigation revealed that he was infected with a novel coronavirus from an upstairs and downstairs neighbor, possibly from the same elevator.
Disease control experts in guangdong province also introduced a case of transmission in a closed carriage.In zhuhai, a 26-year-old young man was diagnosed with a novel coronavirus pneumonia case. The epidemiologists of the center for disease control and prevention launched an investigation and found that he had taken a 2-hour bus ride with sun one week before his illness began.
In the covid-19 protocol (trial seventh edition), it is also explicitly mentioned that novel coronavirus “has the possibility of aerosol transmission under prolonged exposure to high aerosol concentrations in a relatively closed environment”.
Aerosols, technically speaking, are gaseous dispersion systems composed of solid or liquid particles suspended in a gaseous medium.Generally speaking, in order to distinguish it from clean air, aerosols are often called dusty or polluting gases.
Aerosols can also be artificially formed, such as droplets produced by sneezing or coughing. Large droplets quickly fall to the ground or the surface of objects. Small droplets can be suspended in the air for a period of time.
Most incredible: the sole of a shoe can spread
Novel coronavirus can spread through the soles of shoes over distances of at least 13 feet, according to a new study published in April in Emerging Infectious Diseases, an academic journal of the centers for disease control and prevention.2.
The new study by the Chinese people’s liberation army academy of military sciences institute of military medicine, vulcan hill hospital in wuhan city and wuhan city central hospital unit such as the researchers wrote, the researchers examined in vulcan mountain hospital air and ground samples, found in the intensive care unit work of medical staff about half of the sole carries will be coronavirus.
Most shocking of all: the possibility of transmission through clothing
On May 7, the newly confirmed local case in shulan, jilin province was a laundry worker.On May 11, China CDC epidemiological chief expert wu zun friends told CCTV “news 1 + 1” in an interview, a few days ago, a study reported that the concentrations of the virus is about the air, the researchers of hospital patients and doctors to replace isolation ward air pollution areas, and clean the air sampling, found in medical staff to replace isolation clothing space, the air instead of higher levels of virus, that is to say, if the staff inside the room, his clothing may touch the virus, take off in the process of air have higher levels of the virus.
Regarding the current epidemic situation in shulan, jilin province, bai yansong asked: “there is a theory that the case in shulan has been identified as a laundryman from the public security bureau. From April 8 to 30, the public security bureau involved picking up people (from Russia). Is it possible that the laundryman was infected in the process of making and picking up the clothes of the public security bureau?”
To this question, wu zunyou’s answer is: “there is such a possibility!”.
Hardest to imagine: sewage and feces could also spread
In January this year, the New England journal of medicine published a study led by academician zhong nanshan pointing out the evidence of transmission through digestive tract (feces) of novel coronavirus.Novel coronavirus was detected in the feces of the first pneumonia patient in the United States.After this, domestic hospitals in shenzhen and wuhan have also said that the virus was detected in the feces of some patients.3.
So, it is certain that the virus is present in the stool of the patient, but whether the virus is capable of infection, there are still research results.But for the prevention of fecal mouth transmission, we should pay attention to flush the toilet, to cover the toilet seat to flush again, after defecation and urination to wash hands.
Previously, some people on the Internet said novel coronavirus could be “transmitted by sewage.”Why is there such a thing as “the virus is transmitted through sewers”?
In fact, during the SARS epidemic in 2003, 299 people died in Hong Kong, 42 of whom lived in a community called taoda garden.Of the 42, half live in block E, with the rest in 14 other buildings in the community.The buildings close to block E also have more patients infected with the virus.
An investigation found that a virus carrier with symptoms of diarrhea visited block E of Amoy gardens and used the toilet to flush the infected stool down the toilet.One afterthought was that since the feces had entered the sewer and the pipes were connected, the virus could have spread to other rooms if the “U” pipe connected to the bathroom drain was not sufficiently sealed.
What about the risk of “sewer transmission”?If you are using a flush toilet, put the cover down when flushing to prevent germs from excrement from being splashed into the air by the current. This will help prevent the spread of the virus.In addition, in the floor drain as close as possible with a lid, regular disinfection.
Although the spread of the virus is ever-changing, but for most of us ordinary people, with the same should not change, the most effective protection measures are to wash your hands, wear a good mask, touch your face with your hands as little as possible, and communicate with people to keep a certain distance.