50 Questions from viruses to Vaccine Applications

【 Virus 】

  1. What is novel Coronavirus?

A: The standard name should be SARC-COV-2 (SEVERE acute respiratory syndrome virus 2), which belongs to the coronavirus and is currently divided into Several types, including L, S, V, G, GR and GH. The first type discovered in Wuhan is L, but now L type is gradually decreasing globally, and G and related types are the most.

Novel Coronavirus illustration
What does a novel coronavirus look like?

A: Like many viruses, the globular shape has protein projections on the outside that look like the corona and are called coronaviruses (though I don’t know why they’re called coronaviruses, they don’t look like crowns).

Novel Coronavirus (Novel Source network)

  1. What are the main structures of novel Coronavirus?

A: It includes S protein (spinous protein), M protein (membrane protein) and E protein (envelope protein), etc. The ratio of the three proteins is 20:30:1. Inside are genetic material (RNA) and N protein (nucleocapsid protein).

PPT production, copyright no, piracy is not prosecuted

  1. How did novel Coronavirus spread?

A: So far, transmission is mainly through droplets and aerosols, but it is not clear that that is more important in transmission than droplets. About 1,000 virus particles can cause new infections, R0 is 3.28-5.7.

  1. How long can this virus survive on surfaces?

A: The results of different studies are somewhat different. In general, novel Coronavirus infectiousness can last from hours to days under different conditions. However, in general, there is no need to worry excessively since the risk in an everyday environment is extremely low if hygiene is followed.

  1. Is there any way to kill the virus?

Answer: Dry, high temperature, ultraviolet ray and so on can kill virus effectively, but alcohol needs sufficient concentration, not the hand sanitizer that contains alcohol can kill virus, use high concentration alcohol at will also have risk.

  1. What if there is a virus in food?

A: Cooked food is fine, unless you want to expose the salmon to ultraviolet light or dry it thoroughly before eating (and, of course, raw, in a high-quality quarantine).

  1. Do I need to disinfect all kinds of packaging?

A: So far I haven’t seen anyone infected by express delivery. Although I can’t say that it is completely impossible, if it is so complicated, just don’t chop off your hands.

【 Disease 】

  1. What disease will novel Coronavirus cause?

A: In the later stage, the standard scientific name is COVID-19 (COVID-19). However, because COVID-19 mainly causes lung diseases, it is called COVID-19 in the early stage in China and then officially declared as the national standard name. It doesn’t matter whether it is right or wrong, as everyone knows it is a very serious disease anyway.

How do viruses infect cells?

A: We often see things like S protein, RBD and ACE2 on the Internet, but they are too complicated to understand. Simply put, one of the fingers of the sarS-COV-2’s hand (S protein) opens the cell’s fingerprint lock (ACE2), and then it enters the cell. That is all.

  1. How does novel Coronavirus attack tissues and organs?

A: To put it simply, since many tissue cells have a combination lock that novel Coronavirus can unlock, viruses can happily invade those tissue organs.

Novel Coronavirus is more simple and crude than hepatitis virus — novel coronavirus is a novel that opens a lock, enters a cell, and replicates in the cell, thereby directly destroying the infected cell with its offspring.
The latter are the infected cells that then seduce the immune system to kill the infected cells.

  1. What are the complications of COVID-19?

A: Too many, involving multiple systems, including the respiratory system (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, etc.), the cardiovascular system (heart failure, thrombosis, etc.), the nervous system (encephalitis, Guillembarre syndrome, etc.), and even organ failure, septic shock and even death.

  1. Is COVID-19 at high risk of death?

A: Compared with SARS, the case fatality rate is not very high. In the United States, for all age groups, the risk of death is 0.003% for those aged 0-19, 0.02% for those aged 20-49, 0.5% for those aged 50-69 and 5.4% for those aged 70-plus.
In addition to age, smoking, cardiopulmonary history, obesity, organ transplantation and other factors may increase the risk of death.

  1. If you get COVID-19, will you never get it again?

Answer: Not so, nucleic acid test repositive is possible (even if many are false positive or due to the nucleic acid fragment that has no risk of infection), but do appear many cases of secondary disease, so it should never be thought that once the disease can be lifelong immunity.

  1. How to treat COVID-19?

A: Although several antiviral drugs or hormones have been approved for the treatment of COVID-19, the main treatment is still symptomatic treatment. Of course, some amazing countries and regions have approved traditional medical protocols with local characteristics, but at least in terms of the research design and results, I personally think it is very humorous.

  1. Is COVID-19 treatment free in our country?

A: Yes, currently treatment is free if diagnosed, but for other illnesses you have to pay for it yourself, and even if it’s free, no one wants to get sick.

【 Vaccine 】

  1. What is COVID-19 vaccine?

A: A biological preparation to prevent novel Coronavirus infection or COVID-19. As of December 17, there were 56 vaccines in clinical studies worldwide and 166 vaccines in preclinical studies.

  1. What kinds of COVID-19 vaccines are available?

A: According to WHO, there are 10 categories in total, but For the sake of explanation, I have reduced them to 6 categories, including attenuated vaccine, inactivated vaccine, protein subunit vaccine, viral vector vaccine (replication/non-replication/antigen presenting cell involvement), nucleic acid vaccine (mRNA, DNA), and virus-like particle vaccine.

Classification and quantity of vaccines entering clinical practice worldwide (2020.12.17)

  1. Can you briefly explain the mechanism of various COVID-19 vaccines?

A: Let me talk briefly about the differences between the six types of vaccines, using the main structure of the virus:

That’s what your butt did
Attenuated vaccine: the attenuated virus strain is cultivated through various ways, which simulates an infection with almost no symptoms to stimulate the immune system, and may restore virulence in very rare cases;

The attenuated vaccine strain is much less virulent — “Hello, My name is Chicken Little”
Inactivated vaccine: Inactivates the virus using -propanolide, making it less infectious and pathogenic, but leaving the virus intact with antigenicity that the immune system can recognize;

Inactivated vaccines inactivate the virus, and in fact the nucleic acid can be purified — virus number one, virus number one
Subunit vaccine: it is prepared after purification by culling viral antigen proteins (such as S protein) in various ways, with high purity and good safety, but some vaccines have relatively poor efficacy.

Preparation of purified extracted antigen protein — “Only arms and legs left”
Virus vector vaccine: Gene expressing antigen protein (such as S protein) is “transplanted” to other viruses for culture through gene technology, so that a new virus can produce novel coronavirus antigen protein;

It’s the antigenic protein that makes the virus grow the new corona-we’re going to look at grafting today
Nucleic acid vaccine: Novel Coronavirus nucleic acid (mRNA or DNA) is genetically engineered to be grafted onto a vector so that viral antigen (such as S protein) can be manufactured in the body instead of being injected into the body after being manufactured in vitro.

Let the antigenic proteins be made in the body instead of in vitro – and feed and clothe yourself
Virus-like particle vaccine: A particle that contains only the full “shell” of the virus and contains no genetic material that triggers an immune response but does not cause disease.

It was a soulless body — “an empty head.”

  • specific please see: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/risk-comms-updates/update37-vaccine-development.pdf?
  1. What experiments have been done in animal research?

A: Safety (including acute toxicity, long-term toxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc.), immunogenicity (whether antibodies are produced, different immune procedures, etc.), cross protection and other studies have been conducted. In addition to conventional mice, a variety of animal models including rhesus monkeys have also been studied.

  1. Can vaccines protect animals from the virus?

Answer: based on the current study, if you take large dose of virus attack poison experiment, infected animals is inevitable, and even produce certain pathological changes, but the vaccinated animals more mild symptoms, and detoxification of time shortened, the vaccinations and even after a period of time all parts of the virus is completely removed, and no vaccine in animals still persist and severe lesions.

  1. What about the immunogenicity of these vaccines?

A: Currently, all approved vaccines have a positive conversion rate of “neutralizing antibodies” that kill the virus after inoculation, meaning that almost everyone has hit the antibodies that theoretically produce antibodies against the virus.

  1. Is it better if the antibody value is high?

A: At present, the neutralizing antibody level of all kinds of vaccines is in the range of tens to thousands if only from the perspective of numerical value. However, due to different detection methods for neutralizing antibody (the result of different methods may be tens of times different), direct comparison cannot be made. However, currently approved vaccines can produce neutralizing antibody.

Photo source: @Ziling listening to the music teacher
How safe is the vaccine?

A: From the point of animal testing, the safety of all kinds of vaccines is very good.
In terms of human vaccines, the inactivated vaccine is the best in terms of safety according to the public information of adverse reactions. However, it does not mean that other vaccines are not safe, but there are a few more adverse reactions.

  1. Does the vaccine have an antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect?

A: No vaccine has been found in either animal or clinical trials to induce such a situation, and there is a lack of evidence to support the presence of ADE in novel Coronavirus in cases of secondary infection.

  1. Do COVID-19 vaccines cause adverse reactions, neurological diseases and death?

Answer: although some news reports the various after vaccination with fever, fatigue, irritability, also mentioned the facial paralysis, across myelitis symptoms, and even death, but a slight adverse reaction after vaccination are part of the normal phenomenon of vaccination, and so far there is no evidence that serious adverse events and deaths related to the vaccine.

Most of the time, the domestic and foreign media are blackening each other, although to a certain extent, it can increase people’s confidence in the domestic vaccine, and it does not sow the seeds for the breeding of various rumors, which is very interesting.

  1. What is the immunization procedure for COVID-19 vaccine?

A: Except for the domestic adenovirus vector vaccine, which is one dose, all other vaccines are two doses. The interval between the two doses of inactivated vaccine currently used for emergency vaccination in China is 14 or 28 days.

  1. How protective are vaccines?

A: According to existing reports, the protection efficacy of a certain inactivated COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19 cases in foreign countries is between 62% and 95%. According to foreign media, the overall protection efficacy of a certain inactivated COVID-19 vaccine against infection in China is 86%, but there is no further information.

  1. What is the number of days after vaccination when the vaccine becomes effective?

Answer: according to the American FDA data on two mRNA vaccine, starting around the 10th day after inoculation agent 1, vaccine group and the placebo group there is an obvious difference, but other vaccines have not provide the data, from the perspective of experience within days after vaccination can produce antibodies, general two weeks or so can protect.

  1. What if there are concerns about the short duration of protection for inactivated vaccines used for emergency vaccination?

A: Inactivated vaccines themselves need to rely on multiple doses of immune stimulation for long-term protection. Currently, based on the research results, it is set as two doses of vaccination. In the future, various vaccines may change the immunization procedure according to the needs of epidemic prevention.

Simply put, if there is no antibody or the vaccine is no longer protective after a certain period of time, it is possible to get a booster, not only for inactivated vaccines, but also for other manufactured vaccines.

  1. Is the inactivated vaccine still effective after the virus mutates?

A: Based on the current results of animal experiments, the novel Coronavirus induced by inactivated vaccine can cross-neutralize a variety of genotypes. That is to say, a novel coronavirus induced by inactivated vaccine is theoretically typed, and the neutralizing antibody generated can also play a protective role against the mutated virus.

  1. Which COVID-19 vaccine do you recommend?

Answer: the current domestic only open inactivated vaccine emergency vaccination, so not optional, the other is selective, even I think combining actuality of our country and foreign gap immunizations, and the study of various vaccines will not be enough to support the conclusion of relative, so I now think any vaccine for the contraindications to crowd process is acceptable.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Is the COVID-19 vaccine being used as a guinea pig?

A: Vaccines that can be used for open use or emergency use have been verified by mice, a variety of other animals, and many people. Even the inactivated vaccines now used for emergency vaccination have gone through two complete rounds of clinical studies, so there is no way to speak of mice.

In addition, on the one hand, the growing environment of mice is more strict than that of humans in a sense, so people generally do not have the living environment when mice;
Mice, on the other hand, need to be subjected to the ravages of studies such as high-dose injections, challenge tests, reproductive toxicity tests, and so on. Who would want to participate in such research now?

  1. How many phase I clinical studies does the vaccine belong to?

Answer: at this stage belongs to the “emergency vaccination”, do not belong to the Ⅰ Ⅲ clinical research period, so in an emergency use phase, anyone bragging about their participation in clinical trials are now a raise own delusion.

But personally I tend to be defined at this stage in a quasi Ⅳ mass safety observation research, domestic no Ⅲ period clinical conditions, after all, but can be more than Ⅰ period and Ⅱ period clinical safety observation, of course, is for the new vaccine research has made some contribution, but more still enjoyed the chance to be protected in advance.

  1. Where can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?

Answer: need according to national requirement and vaccine supply situation of each province at the present stage, after waiting for local each unit to undertake notice to epidemic prevention key crowd, go to the regular inoculation unit that obtains permission to have inoculation, have not been opened to the public.

  1. Who are the priority groups for COVID-19 vaccination?

Answer: the key population includes inspection and quarantine personnel, port staff, medical personnel, foreign-related personnel, and personnel of various service industries, etc., specific reference should be made to relevant public information. The inoculation age range is temporarily between 18 and 59 years old.

  1. When do non-priority populations expect to receive the vaccine?

A: There is no specific information at the moment, but it is expected that we will gradually expand the vaccination coverage according to the actual situation in the future. Generally speaking, the priority is to ensure the vaccination of key groups.

  1. How much is a dose of COVID-19 vaccine?

A: According to the public information, the price of inactivated vaccine in China is about 200 yuan, and the total price of two doses is about 400 yuan.

  1. Is the online booking channel for COVID-19 vaccine reliable?

Answer: unless the local has clear open information to be able to be in the regular inoculation unit that authorizes permission at one’s own expense, voluntary inoculation, otherwise all regard as false news, want to consider false vaccine risk at the same time, do not lose basic judgement ability because of the worry of disease, cause economy even life health loss!
If you find that COVID-19 vaccines are being sold through informal channels, you should report them to official platforms such as 12320 as soon as possible.

  1. If the time is too late, will one or two injections be effective?

Answer: there is no such research is published, safety, immunogenicity remains to be seen, so it is not recommended in accordance with such plan, but in theory could be good in a vaccination agent 1, but far worse than 2 doses of interval, the subsequent hopes to be able to see this kind of data to support this special program has the safety, immunogenicity, effectiveness.

  1. Do I still need to wear a mask when I go abroad after being vaccinated?

A: The protective effect of any vaccine is not 100%. It is still possible to catch or even transmit avirus after vaccination. Therefore, in public places with many people, you should consider continuing to wear a mask to prevent various respiratory tract borne pathogens, including novel Coronavirus.

  1. Will nucleic acid tests be positive after vaccination?

A: The inactivated agent used in the novel coronavirus vaccine is -propanolide, which inactivates the nucleic acid by entering into the virus through membrane lysis. Therefore, there will be no positive nucleic acid test after inoculation of the novel coronavirus vaccine. Of course, considering the sensitivity of the kit, it is not impossible to have a false positive result, but it has nothing to do with the vaccine.

  1. Why do many people say that antibodies cannot be detected after vaccination?

Answer: domestic many inspection agency claims to be able to play the vaccine for people can produce antibody, but due to different methods (mostly ELISA, colloidal gold, chemiluminescence method, etc.), so the test results differ in thousands ways, so unless the laboratory with the corresponding neutralizing antibody detection method has reference meaning, or if he doesn’t have any test results are not allowed to be reference, basic belong to waste money also worry about it.

There are two commonly used detection methods for neutralizing antibodies of COVID-19, namely trace cytopathemic method (CPE method) and plaque reduction method (PRNT method). However, due to different methodologies, the results will be different, so the neutralizing antibody values obtained cannot be directly compared.

Can the elderly and children be vaccinated against COVID-19?

A: There is still a lack of relevant data. China’s emergency vaccination is limited to people between 18 and 59 years old, but some regions have begun to count the willingness of vaccination. In fact, vaccination can be given as long as the health condition is stable and the policy allows and informed voluntary.

  1. Can I be vaccinated against COVID-19 during pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation?

A: vaccine reproductive toxicity studies are conducted by animal testing, and also studies the mother preach antibody milk antibody, but now it is the lack of human clinical research data, so from a personal point of view, for the case of pregnancy and lactation, based on the if have a strong will can undertake vaccination, temporarily suspend first vaccination during pregnancy, specific whether vaccination also need according to the relevant requirements, so I said is not.

  1. Is COVID-19 vaccine available for chronic diseases, allergies and other conditions?

A: At present, the data on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of people with special health conditions are not sufficient, so it is not recommended to vaccinate such people for the time being. After all, there are some cases that may aggravate the immune disease after vaccination, so caution should be taken.
But I don’t like the term allergic constitution, a lot of people who have a slight pollen allergy label themselves or others as allergic constitution, but the term itself is a false concept.

  1. Can The unit force me to get COVID-19 vaccine?

A: No!
Any vaccination must be based on the knowledge of the principle of voluntary, so can’t ask anyone to compulsory immunization vaccines, especially for some special health people (I already hint, if really have forced to play but really don’t want to play the “special” the health is also acceptable, but for now played or not do more harm than good.

  1. Why do many people on the Internet oppose COVID-19 vaccination?

Answer: a variety of reasons, but many are disinformation through distortion results or by association, in fact depends on the individual whether vaccination for disease and vaccine cognitive level, and personal will, so whether vaccination, or at least outsiders have no right to interfere, but remember – protection of vaccination is not yourself.

  1. What should I do if I want to get COVID-19 vaccine?

A: Then read the article again and make a decision after you have a deeper and more objective understanding of the vaccine. If you still struggle with it, you will probably lose the chance.

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